In 2000, a rival group to AIAI emerged that was made up of ten sharia courts.
Like AIAI and the ICU before it, al-Shabaab's ideology is rooted in Wahhabi-Salafism, a puritanical form of Islam that finds inspiration from the way the earliest Muslims practiced the religion; violence and terrorism are essential to its socio-political aims.
Eastleigh, a Somali-dominated suburb of Nairobi and subdivision of Pumwani, has also been a hotbed of Salafism at least since AIAI reached out to Somalis there in the mid 1990s.
Harakat Al Shabaab Al Mujahidin ("Mujahidin Youth Movement" or MYM, hereafter Al Shabaab), a militia loosely affiliated with the courts, emerged in 2003-2004 under young former AIAI commanders who had fought in Afghanistan.
Efforts to mediate between the UIC and the TFG failed as divisions within the UIC grew, culminating in a declaration of jihad against Ethiopia by UIC hardliners, led by former AIAI leader Hassan Dahir Aweys.
Embury subsequently informed Windspeaker that AIAI
had not received a reply to their letter yet because "First Nations along the route were given first priority.
chiefs are advising employers in their communities to continue to keep the amount of their employee's tax-free income to themselves.
Members of the Al-Ittihad militia (see background below) reportedly provided the bulk of the security forces for these courts in the areas AIAI had a presence.
The State Department's Country Reports on Terrorists stated in 2006 that "in recent years the existence of a coherent entity operating as AIAI (Al-Ittihad) has become difficult to prove.
Workarounds: Teknowledge developed two workaround integrations, one an internal Teknowledge system, the other from AIAI at the University of Edinburgh.
The AIAI workaround planner was also implemented in CYC and took data from Teknowledge's FIRE&ISE-TO-MELD translator as its input.
Although it is not a commonsense approach, AIAI decided to explore HTN planning because it appeared suitable for the workaround domain.